Quick and easy history opportunity is the National Museum of Bermuda right at the Royal Dockyard where you'll be docked. It is self guided and very informative. Cost is $15 for adults. (A quick check of the website https://nmb.bm/ indicates that it is currently closed to the public due to the Coronavirus)
Haven't taken it but there is an Historic Forts of Bermuda excursion offered in the Cruise Planner. Seems like one to explore (I've been to a few of the forts individually).
And if your interest in history includes the United States Civil War/The War Between the States/The War of Northern Aggression (pick your favorite descriptor), the Bermuda National Trust Museum in St. Georges is located in the building that was the headquarters for Confederate agents during the war and includes a permanent display related to blockade runners and the role played by Bermuda.